RISK FACTORS FOR PHPT
You may be at an increased risk of PHPT if you:
- Are a woman who has gone through menopause
- Have had prolonged, severe calcium or vitamin D deficiency
- Have a rare, inherited disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I, which usually affects multiple glands
- Have had radiation treatment for cancer that has exposed your neck to radiation
- Have taken lithium, a drug most often used to treat bipolar disorder
Symptoms may be so mild to severe and nonspecific that they dont seem at all related to parathyroid function. The range of signs and symptoms include:
- Fragile bones that easily fracture (osteoporosis)
- Kidney stones
- Excessive urination
- Abdominal pain
- Tiring easily or weakness
- Depression or forgetfulness
- Bone and joint pain
- Frequent complaints of illness with no apparent cause
- Nausea, vomiting or loss of appetite
PHPT occurs because of some problem with one or more of the four parathyroid glands:
- A noncancerous growth (adenoma) on a gland is the most common cause (85%).
- Enlargement (hyperplasia) of two or more parathyroid glands accounts for most other cases (10-15%).
- A cancerous (malignant) tumor is a rare cause (>1%).
Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually nonfamilial , but some people inherit a gene that causes the disorder
Complications of hyperparathyroidism are primarily related to the long-term effect of too little calcium in your bones and too much calcium circulating in your bloodstream. Common complications include:
- Osteoporosis. The loss of calcium often results in osteoporosis, or weak, brittle bones that fracture easily.
- Kidney stones. The excess of calcium in your blood may cause small, hard deposits of calcium and other substances to form in your kidneys. A kidney stone usually causes significant pain as it passes through the urinary tract.
- Cardiovascular disease. Although the exact cause-and-effect link is unclear, high calcium levels are associated with cardiovascular conditions, such as high blood pressure (hypertension) and certain types of heart disease.
- Neonatal hyperparathyroidism. Severe, untreated hyperparathyroidism in pregnant women may cause dangerously low levels of calcium in newborns.
Dr. Sanjay Kr Bhadada,
Department of Endocrinology,
PGIMER, Chandigarh - 160012,
Mail id - firstname.lastname@example.org
Mobile - +919876602448